search for


 

Editorial

Comprehensive Understanding of Slow Learners (Borderline Intellectual Functioning)

Keun-Ah Cheon

J Korean Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2024;35(3):153-154

Special Articles: PTSD and Trauma Related Disorder

Impact of Childhood Maltreatment on Cognitive Function and Its Relationship With Emotion Regulation in Young Adults

Min Seok Kim, Kyungmin Kim, Jihyun Nam et al.

J Korean Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2024;35(3):155-162

Objectives: Childhood maltreatment can negatively impact cognitive development, including executive function, working memory, and processing speed. This study investigated the impact of childhood maltreatment on cognitive function in young adults using various measurements, including computerized tests, and their relationship with emotional dysregulation.
Methods: We recruited 149 healthy individuals with and without maltreatment experiences and used the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale IV (WAIS-IV) and a computerized battery to analyze cognitive function.
Results: Both the WAIS-IV and computerized tests revealed that individuals with a history of childhood maltreatment had decreased cognitive function, especially in terms of working memory and processing speed. These individuals tended to employ maladaptive emotion regulation strategies. Among cognitive functions, working memory is negatively related to maladaptive emotion regulation strategies such as catastrophizing.
Conclusion: This study highlights the effects of childhood maltreatment on cognitive function in young adulthood. Moreover, the study suggests clinical implications of cognitive interventions for improving emotion regulation and cognitive function in individuals with a history of childhood maltreatment.
Key Words: Childhood maltreatment; Working memory; Processing speed; Rumination; Catastrophizing
Special Articles: PTSD and Trauma Related Disorder

Childhood Maltreatment and Toxic Stress: What We Have Learned From the COVID-19 Pandemic Era

Winda Indriati, Salva R. Yurista, I Gusti Ayu Indah Ardani et al.

J Korean Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2024;35(3):163-168

Stress is a natural state that emerges due to the dynamics of an individual’s life. Children must learn how to effectively manage stress as part of their growth and development. Resolution is possible when children are exposed to stress and receive adequate support from their families. However, when stress is intense, frequent, protracted, or traumatic, as in cases of childhood abuse, it can become toxic and interfere with the development of the child’s brain and body. This results in vulnerability, which can have detrimental effects on the child’s overall physical, mental, and emotional health. This perspective discusses the impact of childhood maltreatment and toxic stress, drawing on insights gained during the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to shed light on the lessons learned from this unique and challenging period and how they inform our understanding of the effects of stress on children’s well-being.
Key Words: Toxic stress; Childhood maltreatment; Mental health; COVID-19
Special Articles: PTSD and Trauma Related Disorder

Characteristics and Treatment of Cyberviolence Trauma in Children and Adolescents

Seung Min Bae

J Korean Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2024;35(3):169-174

Cyberviolence is a new form of violence encompassing any online activity that results in harm to the psychological, emotional, financial, or physical well-being of an individual or group. These adverse activities often lead to serious offline and long-lasting negative impact, especially on children and adolescents whose development has not matured sufficiently. Therefore, it is more important for mental health professionals to be well informed about the rapidly evolving forms of cyberviolence and its risks and to respond appropriately. This article provides an overview of the concept and unique features of cyberviolence trauma in minors in South Korea while also examining ongoing efforts to explore and implement effective treatment programs. Cyberbullying and digital sexual abuse, the most common forms of cyberviolence experienced by minors in South Korea, are explored in detail. Additionally, this review proposes directions for future research and the efforts that clinicians should focus on.
Key Words: Cyberbullying; Child sexual abuse; Sexual violence; Cyber-victimization
Special Articles: Slow Learners (Borderline Intellectual Functioning)

Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Slow Learners (Borderline Intellectual Functioning)

So-Yeon Lee and Keun-Ah Cheon

J Korean Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2024;35(3):175-180

The definitions of “slow learners” and “borderline intellectual functioning (BIF)” have not reached a consensus and have continually evolved in terminology. The criteria for diagnosing BIF include the Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient, adaptive functioning, and onset of symptoms from the developmental period; however, specific standards have not been provided. Until the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV, a range for the Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient was provided, but due to its limitations in reflecting the actual functioning of individuals with BIF, this criterion was removed from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5. The absence of specific diagnostic criteria complicates the identification of individuals with BIF, highlighting the need for a more precise classification and definition.
Key Words: Borderline intellectual functioning; Slow learner; Adaptive functioning
Special Articles: Slow Learners (Borderline Intellectual Functioning)

Exploring the Clinical Characteristics and Comorbid Disorders of Borderline Intellectual Functioning

Minae Kim and Keun-Ah Cheon

J Korean Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2024;35(3):181-187

Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) is characterized by cognitive impairment and deficits in adaptive functioning. Despite affecting a significant proportion of the population, BIF still remains underdiagnosed and poorly understood. In addition to cognitive impairments across a range of domains, individuals with BIF face a greater risk of academic failure and often require special educational support. They suffer from emotional problems, such as difficulties with emotional awareness, anxiety, depressed mood, and unhappiness. Individuals with BIF are more likely to have an impairment of social and adaptive functioning. Furthermore, individuals with BIF are at higher risk of physical and mental health problems, often receive inadequate treatment, and have a poorer prognosis. This review aims to enhance the understanding of clinicians, educators, and policymakers by providing an overview of the characteristics of BIF and its associated challenges, ultimately contributing to the improvement of support systems for individuals with BIF.
Key Words: Borderline intellectual functioning; Slow learners; Clinical characteristics; Comorbidity
Special Articles: Slow Learners (Borderline Intellectual Functioning)

Etiology of Borderline Intellectual Functioning

Hyo-Won Kim

J Korean Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2024;35(3):188-191

Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF), characterized by intelligence quotient scores between 70 and 85, can lead to challenges in daily life. This review explored the multifaceted nature of BIF by examining the interplay between genetic predisposition, prenatal/perinatal factors, environmental influences, and underlying medical conditions.
Key Words: Borderline intellectual functioning; Etiology; Genetics
Special Articles: Slow Learners (Borderline Intellectual Functioning)

Treatment, Education, and Prognosis of Slow Learners (Borderline Intelligence)

So Hee Lee

J Korean Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2024;35(3):192-196

Objectives: Borderline intelligence has been excluded from formal diagnostic systems and not included in disability diagnoses, leaving gaps in treatment, education, and social welfare despite various functional impairments. Therefore, we aimed to shed light on ways to enhance the intelligence and functioning of individuals with borderline intelligence by reviewing research on its progression, education, and treatment.
Methods: Ten studies that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the final literature review and analyzed according to detailed topics (participant characteristics, design, and results).
Results: Borderline intelligence is associated with various comorbid conditions, such as anxiety, depression, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and addictive disorders, which negatively impact its course and prognosis. Individuals with borderline intelligence often face challenges in academics, employment, interpersonal relationships, and health owing to lifelong cognitive impairments. The treatment of borderline intelligence necessitates addressing environmental factors, such as neglect and abuse, as well as treating comorbid mental disorders, which are crucial for prognosis. Tailoring treatment programs for cognitive profile characteristics have been proposed, and studies have reported the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy, working memory training, and intensive rehabilitation training. Therefore, early intervention during childhood brain development is necessary. Risk factors, such as lack of parental education, and their impact on treatment outcomes have also been reported.
Conclusion: Extensive research is needed on education, treatment, and prognosis related to borderline intelligence. Active intervention for children with borderline intelligence is essential to improve their functioning and quality of life.
Key Words: Borderline intelligence; Treatment; Education; Prognosis
Original Article

The Relationship Between Brain Activation for Taking Others’ Perspective and Interoceptive Abilities in Autism Spectrum Disorder: An fMRI Study

Huiyeong Jeon, Ahjeong Hur, Hoyeon Lee et al.

J Korean Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2024;35(3):197-209

Objectives: In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we aimed to investigate the differences in brain activation between individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing (TD) individuals during perspective taking. We also examined the association between brain activation and empathic and interoceptive abilities.
Methods: During scanning, participants from the ASD (n=17) and TD (n=22) groups were shown pain stimuli and asked to rate the level of the observed pain from both self- and other-perspectives. Empathic abilities, including perspective taking, were measured using an empathic questionnaire, and three dimensions of interoception were assessed: interoceptive accuracy, interoceptive sensibility, and interoceptive trait prediction errors.
Results: During self-perspective taking, the ASD group exhibited greater activation in the left precuneus than the TD group. During other-perspective taking, relative hyperactivation extended to areas including the right precuneus, right superior frontal gyrus, left caudate nucleus, and left amygdala. Brain activation levels in the right superior frontal gyrus while taking other-perspective were negatively correlated with interoceptive accuracy, and those in the left caudate were negatively correlated with perspective taking ability in the ASD group.
Conclusion: Individuals with ASD show atypical brain activation during perspective taking. Notably, their brain regions associated with stress reactions and escape responses are overactivated when taking other-perspective. This overactivity is related to poor interoceptive accuracy, suggesting that individuals with ASD may experience difficulties with the self-other distinction or atypical embodiment when considering another person’s perspective.
Key Words: Autism spectrum disorder; Brain; Functional magnetic resonance imaging; Perspective taking; Empathy; Interoception; Embodiment
Original Article

Study on Awareness of Suicide and Suicide Prevention Among Community Youth

Jiyoung Kim, Young-Hoon Ko, Ho-Kyoung Yoon et al.

J Korean Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2024;35(3):210-217

Objectives: South Korea has the highest suicide rate among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries; there is an increasing trend in suicide attempts among middle and high school students. Various factors contribute to the risk of suicide among adolescents, and the perception of suicide prevention has emerged as a significant factor. This study aimed to investigate the association between emotional and behavioral difficulties among middle and high school students and their perceptions of suicide prevention and to explore differences in suicide perception according to age.
Methods: A survey was conducted among community middle and high school students, including 530 participants, between 2020 and 2021. Emotional and behavioral difficulties were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire-Korean version, and participants were asked to complete a questionnaire on the importance and possibility of suicide prevention. A correlation test and analysis of variance were used to examine the relationships between the variables, and suicide awareness was compared according to age.
Results: The participants who displayed higher strength or lower difficulty were more likely to respond positively to suicide prevention measures. They also exhibited high strength and low difficulty levels, thus agreeing with the importance of suicide prevention. Regarding age-related perceptions of suicide, adults aged 20–29 years reported the lowest probability of suicide prevention.
Conclusion: Suicide perceptions influence the incidence of suicide. Therefore, active societal engagement through suicide prevention campaigns and related education is essential to improve such perceptions. Continuous attention and support are required to address this issue.
Key Words: Suicidality; Adolescence; Suicide prevention; Emotional problem; Peer problem
Book Review

Rethinking Pain and Pleasure. “Dopamine Nation: Finding Balance in the Age of Indulgence

Seungwon Chung

J Korean Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2024;35(3):218-220

With the world becoming increasingly affluent in terms of material wealth, individuals’ mental health appears to be lagging. “Dopamine Nation: Finding Balance in the Age of Indulgence” offers a new perspective on the meaning of addiction and its solutions in modern society with disparities. This book discusses addiction from the perspective of the balance between pain and pleasure. However, it also offers insights into the mindsets of modern humans, going far beyond the boundaries of addiction.
Key Words: Dopamine; Addictive behavior; Pain; Pleasure
Corrigendum

Analyzing Co-Occurrence of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury With Suicidal Ideation and Related Factors Among Adolescents in Jeju Island

Duk-Soo Moon, Un-Sun Chung, Young Sook Kwack et al.

J Korean Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2024;35(3):221-221

CURRENT ISSUE
J Korean Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2024;35(3):151-221
Editorials
Disasters and Trauma, That Are Harmful to Children and Adolescents, Are All Too Common in the Real World and the Digital World
Un Sun Chung
J Korean Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2024;35(3):151-152
Comprehensive Understanding of Slow Learners (Borderline Intellectual Functioning)
Keun-Ah Cheon
J Korean Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2024;35(3):153-154
Special Articles: PTSD and Trauma Related Disorders
Impact of Childhood Maltreatment on Cognitive Function and Its Relationship With Emotion Regulation in Young Adults
Min Seok Kim, Kyungmin Kim, Jihyun Nam, Seung Jae Lee, and Sang Won Lee
J Korean Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2024;35(3):155-162
Childhood Maltreatment and Toxic Stress: What We Have Learned From the COVID-19 Pandemic Era
Winda Indriati, Salva R. Yurista, I Gusti Ayu Indah Ardani, and Yunias Setiawati
J Korean Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2024;35(3):163-168
Characteristics and Treatment of Cyberviolence Trauma in Children and Adolescents
Seung Min Bae
J Korean Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2024;35(3):169-174
Special Articles: Slow Learners (Borderline Intellectual Functioning)s
Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Slow Learners (Borderline Intellectual Functioning)
So-Yeon Lee and Keun-Ah Cheon
J Korean Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2024;35(3):175-180
Exploring the Clinical Characteristics and Comorbid Disorders of Borderline Intellectual Functioning
Minae Kim and Keun-Ah Cheon
J Korean Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2024;35(3):181-187
Etiology of Borderline Intellectual Functioning
Hyo-Won Kim
J Korean Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2024;35(3):188-191
Treatment, Education, and Prognosis of Slow Learners (Borderline Intelligence)
So Hee Lee
J Korean Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2024;35(3):192-196
Original Articles
The Relationship Between Brain Activation for Taking Others’ Perspective and Interoceptive Abilities in Autism Spectrum Disorder: An fMRI Study
Huiyeong Jeon, Ahjeong Hur, Hoyeon Lee, Yong-Wook Shin, Sang-Ick Lee, Chul-Jin Shin, Siekyeong Kim, Gawon Ju, Jeonghwan Lee, Joon Hyung Jung, Seungwon Chung, and Jung-Woo Son
J Korean Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2024;35(3):197-209
Study on Awareness of Suicide and Suicide Prevention Among Community Youth
Jiyoung Kim, Young-Hoon Ko, Ho-Kyoung Yoon, Boram Chae, Rayoung Han, Nayoung Chae, and Jongha Lee
J Korean Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2024;35(3):210-217
Book Review
Rethinking Pain and Pleasure. “Dopamine Nation: Finding Balance in the Age of Indulgence
Seungwon Chung
J Korean Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2024;35(3):218-220
Corrigendum
Analyzing Co-Occurrence of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury With Suicidal Ideation and Related Factors Among Adolescents in Jeju Island
Duk-Soo Moon, Un-Sun Chung, Young Sook Kwack, Bung-Nyun Kim, and Na Ri Kang
J Korean Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2024;35(3):221-221
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (J Korean Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry) covers the whole range of child and adolescent psychiatry and neuroscience. It also seeks to promote the well-being of children and families by publishing scholarly ...
 
Dissociative Identity Disorder in an Adolescent With Nine Alternate Personality Traits: A Case Study
Sang-Hun Lee, Na Ri Kang, and Duk-Soo Moon
Received March 10, 2022; Accepted May 24, 2022.
Stimulant Induced Movement Disorders in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Seok-Hyun Nam, Myung Ho Lim, and Tae Won Park
Received December 22, 2021; Accepted January 19, 2022.
Clinical Characteristics of Adolescents Hospitalized Through Emergency Room for Intentional Self-Harm or Suicide Attempts
Tae Yeon Yoon, Hyun Sook Lee, Jung-Woo Son, Sang Mi Kim, and Je Jung Lee
Received March 2, 2022; Accepted May 10, 2022.