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Childhood Maltreatment and Toxic Stress: What We Have Learned From the COVID-19 Pandemic Era
J Korean Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry
Published online May 22, 2024
© 2024 Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

Winda Indriati1, Salva R. Yurista1, I Gusti Ayu Indah Ardani2, and Yunias Setiawati1

1Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Airlangga University, Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia
2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University, Udayana University Hospital, Bali, Indonesia
Correspondence to: Yunias Setiawati, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Airlangga University, Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Jl. Mayjen. Prof. Dr. Moestopo, 47, Surabaya, East Java 60286, Indonesia
Tel: +62-315501681 60286, Fax: +62-315022472, E-mail: yunias.setiawati@fk.unair.ac.id
Received February 9, 2024; Revised March 21, 2024; Accepted April 2, 2024.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Stress is a natural state that emerges due to the dynamics of an individual’s life. Children must learn how to effectively manage stress as part of their growth and development. Resolution is possible when children are exposed to stress and receive adequate support from their families. However, when stress is intense, frequent, protracted, or traumatic, as in cases of childhood abuse, it can become toxic and interfere with the development of the child’s brain and body. This results in vulnerability, which can have detrimental effects on the child’s overall physical, mental, and emotional health. This perspective discusses the impact of childhood maltreatment and toxic stress, drawing on insights gained during the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to shed light on the lessons learned from this unique and challenging period and how they inform our understanding of the effects of stress on children’s well-being.
Keywords : Toxic stress; Childhood maltreatment; Mental health; COVID-19


April 2024, 35 (2)
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