Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry : eISSN 2233-9183 / pISSN 1225-729X

Table. 1.

Table. 1.

Randomized controlled trials of therapies for tic and Tourette’s disorders

Study No. of participants Diagnosis Adults/children Age, years Comparative groups Sessions Primary outcome Secondary outcome Comorbidity Medicated participants
Wilhelm et al. [15] 122 (78 males) TD or CTD Adults Range: 16-69 CBIT versus SP 8 YGTSS ATQ Not reported 31 (25.4)
(CBIT: 63, SP: 59) CGI-I AE
Piacentini et al. [40] 126 (99 males) TD or CTD Children Range: 9-17 CBIT versus SP 8 YGTSS PTQ ADHD: 33 (26.1) 46 (36.5)
(CBIT: 61, SP: 65) CBIT: 11.6±2.3 CGI-I AE OCD: 24 (19.0)
ST: 11.7±2.3 GAD: 16 (12.7)
O’Connor et al. [41] 80 (HRT: 80, waitlist & HRT: 24) CTD or HD Adults Range: 18-60 HRT versus waitlist 12 Self-rated tic severity GHQ
MOCI
BDI
STOP
Not reported None
Deckersbach et al. [38] 30 (17 males) (HRT: 15, SP: 15) TD Adults HR: 36.6±13.0
SP: 33.6±11.6
HRT versus SP 8 YGTSS SDI
SOS-10
BDI
YBOCS
Depression: 3 (10.0)
OCD: 9 (30.0)
Social phobia: 2 (6.7)
Panic disorder: 1 (3.3)
16 (53.3)
Verdellen et al. [56] 43 (34 males)
(ERP: 21, HRT: 22)
TD Both Range: 7-55
ERP: 22.0±13.0
HRT: 19.2±11.4
ERP versus HRT ERP: 12
HRT: 10
^YGTSS TF-institute
TF-home
OCD: 6 (14.0)
ADHD: 13 (30.2)
17 (39.5)
Wilhelm et al. [39] 32 (16 males)
(HRT: 16, SP: 13)
TD Adults HRT: 36.2±12.7
SP: 33.2±12.2
HRT versus SP 8-14 YGTSS
CGI-I
- Not reported 14 (43.8)

Data are presented as n (%) or mean±standard deviation. ADHD: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, AE: adverse event, ATQ: Adult Tic Questionnaire, BDI: Beck Depression Inventory, CBIT: Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics, CGI-I: Clinical Global Impression Improvement Scale, CTD: chronic tic disorder, ERP: exposure and response prevention, GAD: generalized anxiety disorder, GHQ: General Health Questionnaire, HD: habit disorder, HRT: habit reversal training, MOCI: Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory, OCD: obsessive-compulsive disorder, PTQ: Parent Tic Questionnaire, SDI: Sheehan Disability Scale, SOS-10: Schwartz Outcome Scale (10 item version), SP: supportive psycho-therapy, STOP: Style of Planning Questionnaire, TD: Tourette disorder, TF-home: home tic frequency ratings, TF-institute: YGTSS tic frequency ratings, YBOCS: Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, YGTSS: Yale Global Tic Severity Scale

J Korean Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2021;32:51-62 https://doi.org/10.5765/jkacap.200042
© 2021 J Korean Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry