Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry : eISSN 2233-9183 / pISSN 1225-729X

Table. 2.

Table. 2.

Basic opioid function in the reward and regulation pathways

OpioidStorageStressAddiction
Dynorphin•Hypothalamus•Corticotropin-releasing hormone stimulates dynorphin•Decreased dopamine release due to binding of DYN at the dopamine receptors (especially nucleus accumbens and dorsal striatum)
•Striatum•Kappa antagonists increase resiliency
•Hippocampus•Corticotropin-releasing hormone increases expression of prodynorphin in the hippocampus and nucleus accumbens and blocks glutamatedecreases learning
•Spinal cord•Kappa stimulation induces stress-related craving
Beta-endorphin•Pituitary (released to blood/periphery)•Corticotropin-releasing hormone binds presynaptic corticotropin-releasing hormone and mu-opioid receptors that inhibit GABA release, which causes excess release of dopamine•Increased corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors
•Hypothalamus (extended amygdala, mesencephalic reticular formation, periaqueductal gray matter, rostral ventral medulla)•Corticotropin-releasing hormone and pro-inflammatory cytokine bind lymphocytes and stimulates betaendorphin during inflammation•Increased corticotropin-releasing hormone release

DYN: dynorphin

J Korean Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017;28:4-13 https://doi.org/10.5765/jkacap.2017.28.1.4
© 2017 J Korean Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry