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Discriminative Effects of Social Skills Training on Facial Emotion Recognition among Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder
J Korean Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2018; 29(4): 150-160
Published online October 1, 2018
© 2018 Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

Ji-Seon Lee1, Na-Ri Kang2, Hui-Jeong Kim2, and Young-Sook Kwak3

1Balgeunmaeum Psychiatric Clinic, Gwangju, Korea
2Department of Psychiatry, Jeju National University Hospital, Jeju, Korea
3Department of Psychiatry, Jeju National University School of Medicine, Jeju, Korea
Correspondence to: Young-Sook Kwak, Department of Psychiatry, Jeju National University School of Medicine, 15 Aran 13-gil, Jeju 63241, Korea
Tel: +82-64-717-1850, Fax: +82-64-717-1849, E-mail:
Received February 27, 2018; Revised May 2, 2018; Accepted May 31, 2018.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Objectives: This study investigated the effect of social skills training (SST) on facial emotion recognition and discrimination in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD).
Methods: Twenty-three children aged 7 to 10 years participated in our SST. They included 15 children diagnosed with ADHD and 8 with ASD. The participants’ parents completed the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL), the ADHD Rating Scale, and Conner’s Scale at baseline and post-treatment. The participants completed the Korean Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (K-WISC-IV) and the Advanced Test of Attention at baseline and the Penn Emotion Recognition and Discrimination Task at baseline and post-treatment.
Results: No significant changes in facial emotion recognition and discrimination occurred in either group before and after SST. However, when controlling for the processing speed of K-WISC and the social subscale of K-CBCL, the ADHD group showed more improvement in total (p=0.049), female (p=0.039), sad (p=0.002), mild (p=0.015), female extreme (p=0.005), male mild (p=0.038), and Caucasian (p=0.004) facial expressions than did the ASD group.
Conclusion: SST improved facial expression recognition for children with ADHD more effectively than it did for children with ASD, in whom additional training to help emotion recognition and discrimination is needed.
Keywords : Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; Autism spectrum disorder; Social skills training; Facial recognition.

October 2018, 29 (4)
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